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    Preparation of Epoxy Microspheres by Continuous Photopolymerzation and Its Surface Functionalization
    HU Xiangwu, ZHU Xiaoqun, NIE Jun, WANG Tao, XU Yanqing, LIU Yao
    Imaging Science and Photochemistry    2020, 38 (5): 771-779.   DOI: 10.7517/issn.1674-0475.200301
    Abstract142)      PDF (3873KB)(890)       Save
    In this paper, the functional polymer microspheres with epoxy functional groups on the surface were prepared by using a self-made continuous photopolymerization device based on suspension photopolymerization. Polymeric PGMA microspheres were prepared by copolymerization of glycidyl methacrylate (GMA) with divinylbenzene (DVB). The effects of initiator dosage, monomer ratio, solvent ratio, stirring rate and light intensity on microsphere size and morphology were investigated. The structure, morphology and properties of the samples were characterized by electron microscopy, infrared spectroscopy (IR) and thermogravimetric (TG). By optimizing the experimental conditions, the particle size controllability of the microspheres was realized. IR determined that the microspheres contained epoxy group, and the microspheres prepared by the microscope had a good sphericity. These results showed the surface of the microscope is rich in epoxy and easy to be modified.
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    The Latest Research Progress of TiO 2 Inverse Opal Photonic Crystal
    YU Jie, CI Mingzhu, LU Quanling, MA Shuqing, JIANG Li, LEI Juying, LIU Yongdi, ZHANG Jinlong
    Imaging Science and Photochemistry    2018, 36 (1): 14-32.   DOI: 10.7517/j.issn.1674-0475.2018.01.002
    Abstract372)      PDF (8745KB)(1748)       Save
    The study of TiO 2 inverse opal photonic crystal is concerned by the majority of scientists in recent years. It has the advantages of the titanium dioxide including non-toxic,the high refractive index, good biocompatibility, and excellent properties in electrochemistry, photo-catalysis, etc. And it also has optical properties of the band gap, photonic localization, slow light effect, super prism effect and negative refraction effect of the photonic crystal, which contributes to multitudinous potential applications in chemical sensors, solar cells, photo-catalysis, high efficient microwave wire,photonic crystal fiber, etc. In this paper,the preparation, modification and applications of the TiO 2 inverse opal photonic crystal in recent years were summarized.
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    XIONG Liangwen, HA Liuzhu, PENG Bixian
    Imaging Science and Photochemistry    1997, 15 (1): 32-38.   DOI: 10.7517/j.issn.1674-0475.1997.01.32
    Abstract680)      PDF (975KB)(1410)       Save
    The effect of seven different gelatins on diffraction efficiency of dichromated gelatin holograms was studied. It was found that one gelatin differs greatly from another in diffraction efficiency of dichromated gelatin holograms. Highest diffraction efficiencies of dichromated gelatin holograms of active gelatins are over 80 percent and that of PA modified gelatin is between 60 and 80 percent and those of inert gelatins are below 50 percent. Dichromated gelatin holograms of active and inert gelatins are clear, but that of PA modified gelatin has “white fog”.
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    Solder Resist Ink for Printed Electronics and Its Developmental Tendency
    YANG Chao, CHANG Yu, YANG Zhenguo
    Imaging Science and Photochemistry    2014, 32 (4): 314-320.   DOI: 10.7517/j.issn.1674-0475.2014.04.314
    Abstract919)      PDF (784KB)(3211)       Save

    Recent studies on solder resist ink for PCB manufacture and its developmental trendwere introducedand reviewed, focusing on solder resist ink for inkjet printing, solder resist for flexible electronics, water soluble photoimageable solder resist ink and white solder resist for LED package.

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    CHEN Yi, WANG Pengfei, WU Shikang
    Imaging Science and Photochemistry    1997, 15 (1): 67-70.   DOI: 10.7517/j.issn.1674-0475.1997.01.67
    Abstract788)      PDF (182KB)(1452)       Save
    The photophysical properties of 2-phenyl-4-(4’-N,N-dimethylaminophenyl)-6-(4’-chlorophenyl)pyrylium tetrafluoborate were studied in 1,2-dichloroethane and PMMA film respectively. It is shown that both intramolecular charge transfer and energy transfer occur in excited state in 1,2-dichloroethane and PMMA film. The difference between them is that in 1,2-dichloroethane the fluorescence emission corresponding to X-axis is detected only and the fluorescence emission from Y-axis is completely quenched due to the formation of TICT (twisted intramolecular charge transfer). Whereas, the fluorescence emissions corresponding to both X-axis and Y-axis are observed in PMMA film. This indicates that the TICT formation could not be formed in excited state under the conformation constrained condition.
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    Photopolymerization of 1,6-Hexanediol Diacrylate Initiated by Diarylketone/Polymerizable Amine
    SUN Meng-zhou, HE Yong, WU Gang-qiang, NIE Jun
    Imaging Science and Photochemistry    2007, 25 (1): 41-49.   DOI: 10.7517/j.issn.1674-0475.2007.01.41
    Abstract1153)      PDF (973KB)(2129)       Save
    The polymerizable amine ethylene glycol 3-morpholine-propionate methacrylate was used as coinitiatos for benzophenone(BP),4-(4-methylbenzisulfide-phenyl)phenyl ketone(BMS),4-chloro-benzophenone(CBP),4-chloromethyl benzophenone(CMBP),4-hydroxymethyl benzophenone(HMBP) photoinitiator system.The photopolymerization kinetics of 1,6-Hexanediol Diacrylate(HDDA) was investigated with Photo-DSC.The result indicated that the structure of diaryl ketone and their mass ratio played an important role on kinetics of photopolymerization rate and monomer conversion,and increasing light intensity and temperature could lead to the increase of photopolymerization rate and the final conversion.The activation energy( E a) of photopolymerization of HDDA initiated by EGMPM/BP had been calculated.
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    Imaging Science and Photochemistry    1992, 10 (3): 207-212.   DOI: 10.7517/j.issn.1674-0475.1992.03.207
    Abstract620)      PDF (2405KB)(907)       Save
    Authors report on formation of J-aggregate monolayers of two cyanine dyes with the same chromophore, however, having a different net charge, after cospreading with the appropriate lipid. Authors had measured surface pressure/area, surface potential/area isotherms, reflection spectra and absorption spectra. It was found that the cationic dye in monolayers with arachidic acid showed a surface pressure dependent equilibrium between dimers and J-aggregate. The second cyanine dye with a net negative charge was spread with eicosylamine and formed the J-aggregate at very low surface pressures. The monolayers with dye B is optically anisotropic in the layer plane.
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    Novel Amino Acid Modified Cellulose for Copper(Ⅱ) Adsorption via Spectrophotometry
    LIU Zhijiang, LI Meng, XIAO Huining, HUANG Zhihong
    Imaging Science and Photochemistry    2017, 35 (3): 274-280.   DOI: 10.7517/j.issn.1674-0475.2017.03.274
    Abstract560)      PDF (821KB)(1048)       Save

    Copper is a highly toxic environmental pollutant, therefore, there is an urgent need to develop new materials for its removal from water. In the present study,new TEMPO oxidized cellulose-based materials were synthesized and investigated as an adsorbent for simple and rapid removal of copper ion[Cu(Ⅱ)] via spectrophotometry. Cellulose was extracted from chemical pulp fiber, TEMPO oxidized, and modified by reaction with three different amino acids (Gly, Lys, His). Compared with TEMPO oxidizedcellulose (TOC), the amino acid modified cellulose (AMC) had better effect on the adsorption of copper ion, in which histidine modified cellulose achieved the best adsorption rate with 97% in low copper concentration. In addition,the AMC dosing amount, initial copper concentration, pH on the adsorption effect were also investigated.The data were analyzed on the basis of variouskinetic and isotherm models, and pseudo-second-order kinetics and Langmuir isotherm were followed for Cu2+ adsorption.

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    The Synthesis and Hydrolysis Evaluation of 2-Alkyl Adamantine-2-yl Methacrylate
    HUI Chuang, MENG Qing-wei, GONG Bin, QU Jing-ping
    Imaging Science and Photochemistry    2007, 25 (5): 357-363.   DOI: 10.7517/j.issn.1674-0475.2007.05.357
    Abstract920)      PDF (558KB)(1826)       Save
    2-methyl adamantine-2-yl methacrylate and 2-ethyl adamantine-2-yl methacrylate are two important monomers of matrix polymer for 193 nm photoresist. The two compounds are synthesized based on utilizing methylmagnesium iodide(ethylmagnesium iodide) as Grinard reagent reacted with 2-adamantone to provide 2-methyl(ethyl) adamantine-2-yl which then esterified with methacryloyl chloride in the presence of NaH to provide the target compounds with the yields of 50—60%. The structures of the compounds are confirmed by 1HNMR, IR, MS and Elementary Analysis. The hydrolysis test was carried out using TsOH·H 2O as catalyst and the hydrolysis mechanism was discussed. The calculated hydrolysis rate constants k are -1.52 and -3.90, respectively.
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    ZHUANG Xiangying, SHI Huanying, ZENG Chunlian, CHEN Yonglie
    Imaging Science and Photochemistry    1998, 16 (1): 8-14.   DOI: 10.7517/j.issn.1674-0475.1998.01.8
    Abstract760)      PDF (352KB)(2073)       Save
    The promotion of organic peroxides on photopolymerization of epoxy resin was examined using iron arene complex as initiators. The activity was dependent upon the oxidability and concentration of the peroxide and it decreases in the order of: benzoyl peroxide(BPO)>bis(α-phenoxyethyl) peroxydicarbonate(BPPD)>dicumyl peroxide(DCP). By promoting the complexation of iron arene cation with epoxides and the ring opening of epoxides,the peroxides could decrease the polymerizing temperature and increase the polymerization rate. However,overdose of the peroxides and too high intensity of light were undesirable.
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    Research Progress of the Bottom Anti-reflective Coating for Photoresist
    WANG Kuan, LIU Jingcheng, LIU Ren, MU Qidao, ZHENG Xiangfei, JI Changwei, LIU Xiaoya
    Imaging Science and Photochemistry    2016, 34 (2): 123-135.   DOI: 10.7517/j.issn.1674-0475.2016.02.123
    Abstract1012)      PDF (3870KB)(3937)       Save

    With the rapid development of the micro-electronics industry, lithography technology has been moving forward to a higher resolution. Bottom anti-reflective coating has attracted great attention of researchers in terms of effectively eliminating the standing wave effect and the notching effect, improving the critical dimension uniformity and the patterning resolution. In this article, the photoresists and photolithography technique, and the classification, basic principle, etching process and development situation of the bottom anti-reflective coating are briefly reviewed. The latest research progress of the bottom anti-reflective coating is summarized in detail, especially the application of developable bottom anti-reflective coating in photoresist. Finally, the prospect and research directions of bottom anti-reflective coating in the future are also introduced.

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    Effects of Gelatin on Phase Transformation and Photocatalytic Activity of Nano-size Titanium Dioxide
    TIAN Bao-zhu, TONG Tian-zhong, CHEN Feng, ZHANG Jin-long
    Imaging Science and Photochemistry    2006, 24 (2): 93-101.   DOI: 10.7517/j.issn.1674-0475.2006.02.93
    Abstract1053)      PDF (1622KB)(1575)       Save
    Nanocrystalline TiO 2 powders were prepared with gelatin dispersants by sol-gel method.The effects of gelatin on phase transformation and average particle sizes of nanocrystalline TiO 2 during calcination were investigated by the means of XRD,TG-DTA,AFM,and N 2 adsorption-desorption.Moreover,the effects of gelatin dosage on photocatalytic activity of samples were evaluated from an analysis of the photodegradation of methyl orange.The experimental results indicate that the gelatin has effects of inhibiting phase transformation from amorphism to anatase and decreasing the anatase-to-rutile transformation temperature,and the average particle size of nanocrystalline TiO 2 decreases with increasing the gelatin dosage.The photocatalytic activity of samples calcined at 600 ℃ increases with increasing gelatin dosage.As for samples calcined at 800 ℃,the highest photocatalytic activity was obtained when m G:m TBOT(mass ratio of gelatin to tetrabutyl titanate)=(1:8.)
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    Study on Photocatalytic Activity of Transition Metal Oxide Doped TiO 2 Photocatalysts
    WU Shu-xin, M A Zhi1, QIN Yong ning, JIA Li sh an, LI Hong rui
    Imaging Science and Photochemistry    2005, 23 (2): 94-101.   DOI: 10.7517/j.issn.1674-0475.2005.02.94
    Abstract834)      PDF (1047KB)(3525)       Save
    Transition metal oxide doped TiO 2 photocatalysts MO x/TiO 2 (M=Cr,Mn,Fe,Co,Ni,Cu) were prepared with impregnation method. The photocatalytic activity was investigated with acetic acid as a photocatalytic degradation modal reactant. The results show that the photocatalytic activity of TiO 2 was improved after being doped by transition metal oxide and there exists an optimal supported value at which the degree of improved photocatalytic activity depends on formation enthalpy of corresponding oxide. Volcano profile relationship was found between the photocatalytic activity and the ratio of electronic affinity to ionic radius of transition metal ion.
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    SU Yu-zhi, LIANG Zhao-xi
    Imaging Science and Photochemistry    2002, 20 (4): 292-302.   DOI: 10.7517/j.issn.1674-0475.2002.04.292
    Abstract754)      PDF (1062KB)(1778)       Save
    Photochromic liquid-crystal polymers are these liquid crystal polymers doped with or covalently bonded with photochromic molecules. The irradiation of linearly polarized light or nonpolarized light caused two-dimensional or three-dimensional photoreorientation of liquid-crystal polymers,owing to structure transformation of photochromic molecules.This paper reviews the recent development in photoreorientation of photochromic liquid-crystal polymers.
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    YAN Qiqiang, LI Cheng’en, ZHANG Jun
    Imaging Science and Photochemistry    2000, 18 (2): 170-173.   DOI: 10.7517/j.issn.1674-0475.2000.02.170
    Abstract743)      PDF (182KB)(1473)       Save
    A series of novel water-soluble styrylvinylcyanine dyes were synthesized by the condensation reaction of 2-methyl -3-propane sulfonic acid-β-naphthathiazole and cinnamaldehyde or o-nitrocinnamaldehyde. It was found that the reaction could be catalyzed by organic base such as triethylamine. UV/vis Spectra of the dyes were studied preliminarily. The result showed that UV absorption of dyes had less maxium molar absorption coefficient.
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    Applications of Visible-light-driven Aerobic Oxidation in Organic Synthesis
    ZHANG Qingbao, LIU Qiang
    Imaging Science and Photochemistry    2017, 35 (5): 614-625.   DOI: 10.7517/j.issn.1674-0475.2017.04.022
    Abstract624)      PDF (2937KB)(1637)       Save

    Visible-light photoredox catalysis, which shows typical features of clean and energy-saving procedures, excellent functional group tolerance, and high chemical selectivities, is a novel and powerful organic synthesis method. As a cheap, ecologically benign oxidant, the combination of aerobic oxidation with visible-light photoredox catalysis greatly promotes the development of green chemistry. This review briefly summarizes recent achievements in the area of visible-light-driven aerobic oxidation by our laboratory and also give its outlook in the future.

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    Imaging Science and Photochemistry    2000, 18 (3): 278-279.   DOI: 10.7517/j.issn.1674-0475.2000.03.278
    Abstract519)      PDF (263KB)(991)       Save
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    CAO Weixiao, YE Shujian, CAO Shuguang, ZHAO Chao
    Imaging Science and Photochemistry    1997, 15 (2): 174-177.   DOI: 10.7517/j.issn.1674-0475.1997.02.174
    Abstract827)      PDF (174KB)(1245)       Save
    Polyion complexes based on diazo-resin were prepared from the reaction between diazo-resin as polycation and poly(sodium 4-styrene sulfonate) as polyanion in aqueous solution. The polyion complexes containing diazonium groups exhibit high photosensitive behaviors. Under irradiation of UV light, the complex, which dissolves in the shielding solvent composed of DMF-H 2O LiCl, will become indissoluble because the complex changes its crosslinking structure from ionic link to covalent bond. This character should be very important to develop a new photoimaging system.
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    Imaging Science and Photochemistry    1984, 2 (3): 49-55.   DOI: 10.7517/j.issn.1674-0475.1984.03.49
    Abstract584)      PDF (479KB)(1280)       Save
    In the present paper, possibility to realize the double purposes of both catalytic oxidation of ethene to useful organic products and concurrent production of hydrogen fuel by means of photoelectrochemical method was investigated, as well as the functions of the metallic films (Au, Ag and Pd plated on the surface of n-GaP semiconductor electrode) in preventing photocorrosion of the electrodes and in catalytic oxidation of ethene.The effects of such factors, as applied bias, pH, solvent, and so on, on the anodic reactions have been studied.Possible mechanisms of the reactions have been tentatively discussed.
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    The Study of Aggregation Properties of Sodium Alkyl Benzenensulfonate
    SHI Fu-qiang, ZHANG Lu, ZHAO Sui, AN Jing-yi, YU Jia-yong
    Imaging Science and Photochemistry    2005, 23 (3): 175-182.   DOI: 10.7517/j.issn.1674-0475.2005.03.175
    Abstract767)      PDF (308KB)(1814)       Save
    Critical micelle concentration (CMC), aggregation numbers and micropolarity of four sodium branched-alkyl benzene sulfonates were determined by steady-state fluorescence probe method in which pyrene was used as fluorescence probe and benzophenone was used as quencher. The comparison was performed between the CMC results obtained by steady-state fluorescence probe method and that obtained by surface tension method. The Mulliken charge distributions were computed at HF level with 6-31G * basis set.
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    Effects and Mechanism of ITO and ZnO Substrate on Surface Morgraphology and Structural of Electrodeposited Cu 2O Thin Films
    WANG Chun-xiang, ZHANG Qing, XUE Min-zhao, SHENG Qiao-rong, LIU Yan-gang
    Imaging Science and Photochemistry    2007, 25 (1): 18-23.   DOI: 10.7517/j.issn.1674-0475.2007.01.18
    Abstract839)      PDF (974KB)(2177)       Save
    The copper(Ⅰ) oxide(Cu 2O) films were grown on ITO and ZnO substrate by electrochemical potentiostatic deposition.The surface morphology and the structure of the films were investigated by X-ray diffraction(XRD) and scanning electron microscopy(SEM).The nanocrystalline Cu 2O grains have been formed on ZnO substrate with a preferential orientation,while the grain size for films grown on ITO ranges from 2 to 5 μm without a preferential orientation.The growth mechanism of the films is discussed.
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    Application of Machine Vision in Optical Manufacturing and Testing
    SONG Guoqing, WU Yumin, FENG Yunpeng, LIU Jingwei
    Imaging Science and Photochemistry    2016, 34 (1): 30-35.   DOI: 10.7517/j.issn.1674-0475.2016.01.030
    Abstract656)      PDF (1718KB)(2089)       Save

    With the rapid development of automation and control field, machine vision technology is getting mature and wins more and more applications in various domains. Through image information processing, machine vision systems use machines instead of human eyes to do all kinds of measurement and judgment. The concept of machine vision and the configuration of a typical machine vision system have been briefly introduced in this review, and the development of the key techniques in machine vision techniques have also been explained. The application of the machine vision in the field of optical manufacturing and testing have been analyzed in detail, especially in the application of automatic polishing processing. The prospects for further development of machine vision in the field of optical manufacturing and testing are presented.

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    Synthesis of Ethylene Glycol Diglycidyl Ether and Study on Its Properties as Cationic Type UV-Curing Diluent
    LIU Shi-min, HUANG Bi-wu, CHENG Gui-liang
    Imaging Science and Photochemistry    2011, 29 (6): 456-463.   DOI: 10.7517/j.issn.1674-0475.2011.06.456
    Abstract2568)      PDF (731KB)(2366)       Save
    Ethylene glycol diglycidyl ether was synthesized with ethylene glycol and epichlorohydrin as raw materials,with boron trifluoride ether complex as the catalyst,and with sodium hydroxide as the closed ring agent of producing ring reaction.The effects of the closed ring temperature,the dosage of the catalyst,the moral ratio of epichlorohydrin to ethylene glycol,and the moral ratio of sodium hydroxide to ethylene glycol on the reaction were studied,which showed that the preferable synthesizing conditions are 0.40% of the catalyst mass fraction,the moral ratio 2.4:1 of epichlorohydrin to ethylene glycol,the moral ratio 2.2:1 of sodium hydroxide to ethylene glycol,and 30℃ of the closed ring reaction temperature.Meanwhile,the cationic type UV-curing coating was prepared with ethylene glycol diglycidyl ether,epoxy resin (E-51) and triphenylsulphonium hexafluoroantimonate (UVI-6976).The mechanical properties of the UV-cured films were determined,giving 46.25 MPa of tensile strength,1487.26 MPa of Young’s modulus and 6.27% of elongation at tear.
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    Research on Four Primary Color LED Hybrid White Light with Brightness Continuous Adjustable under Different Color Temperature
    XU Xiangyang, CHEN Guangxue, GAO Yuan
    Imaging Science and Photochemistry    2018, 36 (6): 507-513.   DOI: 10.7517/issn.1674-0475.180603
    Abstract360)      PDF (1660KB)(623)       Save
    In order to provide the lighting environment for quantifying the performance of camera-equipped mobile phone, the LED light source with adjustable color temperature and brightness have been developed in this paper. Red LED light source, green LED light source, cool white LED light source and warm white LED light source were selected as the four primary colors, and an experimental device was designed to realize the development of white light source with continuous adjustable color temperature and brightness. The color matching technology studied in this paper took the relative spectral power distribution, chromaticity coordinate, and luminous flux of the four primary as the input parameters. According to Grassmann's law, the color matching algorithm has been developed, the chromaticity coordinate of the Planckian locus are the function values, and the corresponding light flux are variables. In the model solution, the chromatic aberration △UV is the first optimization parameter, which should be less than 0.005. The first optimization has not been completed until the color difference is within the limit. Then the color rendering index(CRI) R a is more than 90 as optimization target, and the calculation has not been carried out until the relative color temperature error is within 100. The test results of the developed light source showed that the color difference △UV is less than 0.003 and R a is more than 91, when achieving the target color temperature and target brightness.
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    FU Yanxun, YANTiantang, RAO Xiuzhi
    Imaging Science and Photochemistry    1996, 14 (1): 14-19.   DOI: 10.7517/j.issn.1674-0475.1996.01.14
    Abstract857)      PDF (2337KB)(1294)       Save
    Thepaper presents a study on the effect of heat treatment on the viscosity and the molecular weight distribtuon of the four photographic gelatins.The experimental results indicate that the viscosity and the number average molecular weight of photographic gelatins are decreased when the heating temperature is increased.The viscosity and the number average molecular weight of photographic gelatins are closely related.Caused by decreasing of the number average molecular weight,the viscosity of photographic gelatins is decreased.Under our experimental condition,the critical heating temperature of inert gelatin and active gelatin is proposed less than 75℃ and less than 60℃ respectively for modified gelatin.
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    Syntheses of Bithiophene Bridged Bis-terpyridine, Protonation and Complexation with Metal Cations (M 2+)
    LI Chun-li, LI Biao, WANG Zhi-hua, WANG Hua
    Imaging Science and Photochemistry    2013, 31 (2): 117-124.   DOI: 10.7517/j.issn.1674-0475.2013.02.004
    Abstract1288)      PDF (815KB)(1847)       Save
    Bithiophene bridged bis-terpyridine ( BTTPY) was synthesized in a total yield of 13%, via formylation, Kröhnke pyridine synthesis and Suzuki coupling with 2,5-dibromothiophene as raw material. UV-Vis and fluorescence spectra of BTTPY exhibit strong red shift in acetic acid and trifluoroacetic due to strong protonation. UV-Vis titration shows that complexation of BTTPY and M 2+ (Ni 2+, Zn 2+, Cd 2+, Cu 2+) could be occurred with a coordination ratio of 1:1. AFM image displays that organometallic polymer could be formed through complexation of BTTPY and Cd 2+.
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    Research Advancement of Liquid Metal Printed Electronics Ink
    WANG Lei, LIU Jing
    Imaging Science and Photochemistry    2014, 32 (4): 382-392.   DOI: 10.7517/j.issn.1674-0475.2014.04.382
    Abstract782)      PDF (1509KB)(3321)       Save

    Printed electronics, which is based on the printing principle, is a newly emerging additive manufacturing technology. It has many advantages for electronics making such as large area, flexibility, personalized and low cost compared to conventional electronics manufacturing. There are generally three typical conductive inks used in printed electronics: conductive carbon ink, conductive polymer and metal conductive ink. However, post-treatments via high temperature curing process are often needed after such printing, so as to improve conductivities as well as reliability of these inks and the printed products. This makes the fabrication process somewhat complicated. Besides, the complex preparation process of the nano materials and inks thus formed also raised the application cost. As a new class of conductive ink, the liquid metal is becoming an important research area. Such ink material owns unique merits such as high electronic conductivity, simple preparation process, requesting no post-processing and so on. To further push forward the research along this direction, this article is dedicated to present an overview on the research advancement of the physical and chemical properties of the liquid metal ink and related typical printing methods over the world. Prospective directions worth of pursuing were outlined.

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    Study on Synthesis of Amino-phenanthroline-Ru (Ⅱ) Phosphor and Its Chemical Immobilization onto PMMA
    HU Xiaoying, LI Jianxiong, LIU Anhua
    Imaging Science and Photochemistry    2015, 33 (6): 513-520.   DOI: 10.7517/j.issn.1674-0475.2015.06.513
    Abstract497)      PDF (853KB)(1374)       Save

    To alleviate phosphor leaching and prolong the lifetime of fluoresce quenching sensors, a reactive phosphor [Ru(dpp)2(phen-NH2)]Cl2 was synthesized through the ligation between [Ru(dpp)2(phen-NH2)]Cl2 and 5-amino-phenanthroline (phen-NH2) and immobilized to PMMA surface through covalent bonding. The structure of the synthesized phosphor and covalent bonding were verified with FT-IR, 1HNMR, 13CNMR spectroscopy, UV-Vis and ES-MS. The effects of reaction conditions on the fluorescence of PMMA immobilized with phosphors were investigated and the fluorescent decay of the PMMA in 50 ℃ water was monitored. The fluorescent emission of the synthesized [Ru(dpp)2(phen-NH2)]Cl2 in ethanol peaked at 570 nm and red shifted 20 nm as chemically bonded to PMMA. [Ru(dpp)2(phen-NH2)]Cl2 bonded to PMMA exhibited fast response speed to dissolved oxygen and the oxygen quenching ratio I0/I100 was 4. After immersed in water at 50 ℃ for more than 90 days, the fluorescence intensity of PMMA bonded with [Ru(dpp)2(phen-NH2)]Cl2 decreased less than 1%.

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    Recent Advances of the Near-infrared Fluorescent BODIPY/aza-BODIPY Dyes
    YUE Shuai, SHAO Zhumei, JIANG Xindong
    Imaging Science and Photochemistry    2020, 38 (4): 585-600.   DOI: 10.7517/issn.1674-0475.191216
    Abstract279)      PDF (3173KB)(347)       Save
    This review covers the design, synthesis and functionalization of BODIPY/aza-BODIPY as fluorophore probes since 2002, including applications for fluorescence quenching, metal ion, anion, biomolecular detection, etc. Synthesis, properties and application of novel aza-BODIPY, substituted aza-BODIPY on the boron center, new near-Infrared-fluorescent aza-BODIPY dyes with 1-methyl-1H-pyrrolyl substituents at the 3, 5-positions and so forth, were herein discussed.
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    WENG Yu-feng, GUO Mei-li, LIN Hong-zhen, BAI Feng-lian
    Imaging Science and Photochemistry    2003, 21 (5): 338-345.   DOI: 10.7517/j.issn.1674-0475.2003.05.338
    Abstract879)      PDF (318KB)(2175)       Save
    Conjugated polymers have attracted much attention due to their unique optical and electronic properties.Conjugated polymers can be served as active materials,such as biosensor,gas and humidity sensor,ion sensor,pressure and temperature sensor etc.In this article,some new reported applications of conjugated polymers in sensors are reviewed.
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    Imaging Science and Photochemistry    1995, 13 (2): 129-135.   DOI: 10.7517/j.issn.1674-0475.1995.02.129
    Abstract678)      PDF (397KB)(1659)       Save
    A copolymer bearing norbornadiene and carbazole as pendants was synthesized and apolymer only having norbornadiene pendants was also prepared for comparision. The valenceisomerization of the norbornadiene molety to quadricy clane moiety proceeded smoothly when the two kinds of polymers were irradiated with the light below 350nm. If the wavelength ofthe incident light was above 350nm, the isomerization reaction was only found in copolymersystem. Utilizing fluorescence quenching experiment and CIDNP technique, the mechanismof sensitized valence isomerization was studied. The isomerization of quadricyclane moiety tonorbornadiene moiety was also achieved by using trifluoroacetic acid as catalyst.
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    Preparation and Performance of UV-curing Waterborne Dry Film Photoresist Based on Acrylic Resins
    LI Weijie, ZHOU Guangda, LI Bogeng
    Imaging Science and Photochemistry    2016, 34 (2): 172-180.   DOI: 10.7517/j.issn.1674-0475.2016.02.172
    Abstract547)      PDF (896KB)(3068)       Save

    Water-soluble acrylic resins were synthesized by radical polymerization, which were used to prepare UV-curing waterborne dry film photoresist. FT-IR showed that no CC bonds existed in acrylic resins, indicated that the resins didn't take part in the UV-curing reaction. Test results exhibited that not only acid value and Weight-average Molecular Weight (Mw) of acrylic resins, but also exposure energy and developing time influenced the performance of dry film photoresist obviously. Take Ⅱ dry film photoresist for example, the optimal conditions were as follows. When the thickness of dry film photoresist was 30 micron, acid value ranged from 140~154, Mw was in the range of 6.00×104~7.54×104. Exposure energy and developing time should be 40~60 mJ/cm2 and 40~50 s, respectively. In these conditions, good sidewall geometry and high resolution (30 μm) were obtained.

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    WU Bing, LI Yuanchang, CHEN Ming, LIN Tianshu, HONG Xiaoyin, JIAO Xiaoming, CHENG Aiping, CHEN Jianjun
    Imaging Science and Photochemistry    1998, 16 (2): 154-160.   DOI: 10.7517/j.issn.1674-0475.1998.02.154
    Abstract714)      PDF (785KB)(1780)       Save
    A kind of water-based negative chemical amplified photoresist, composed of Novolac HMMM as the film former, and diphenyliodonium salt as the photosensitive acid generator and phenothiazine as the photosensitizer, was formulated. The effects of photosensitive acid generators and photosensitizers on the photosensitivity of this system, and the levelling-effect in this system were investigated. Based on our research results, the pattern with line width as low as 1.24 μm was gained with the conventional UV photolithography under the optimum parameters.
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    Evolution and Progress of I-Line Photoresist Materials
    ZHENG Jin-hong
    Imaging Science and Photochemistry    2012, 30 (2): 81-90.   DOI: 10.7517/j.issn.1674-0475.2012.02.81
    Abstract1896)      PDF (1204KB)(1990)       Save
    Novolak-diazonaphthoquinone photoresists have been widely used in g-line、i-line lithography for its high performance. Although g-line and i-line photoresists are both consisted of novolak resin and diazonaphthoquinone photoactive compounds,in order to fit i-line exposure wavelength and seeking for higher resolution, novolak resin and photoactive compounds(PAC) both have difference in structure from g-line to i-line.In i-line resist,the o-o'bonding content of resin is higher, the esterfication of PAC is higher, the proximity of DNQ groups is distant. Dissolution promoter is an important component of i-line resists, some phenolic additives were very useful to control the dissolution behavior.
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    Third-Order Nonlinear Optical Properties of Croconium Dye for a Kind of Near Infrared Dye Used as Optical Record and Storage Material
    LI Zhong-Yu, XU Song, HUANG Xin, ZHANG Fu-shi, Kazuo Kasatani
    Imaging Science and Photochemistry    2007, 25 (4): 241-248.   DOI: 10.7517/j.issn.1674-0475.2007.04.241
    Abstract862)      PDF (1250KB)(1758)       Save
    As a new type of near infrared dye,croconium dyes have drawn much attention for their potential applications in the fields of optical record and storage,and nonlinear optical materials because of their thermal and optical stability as well as intense fluorescence.The third-order optical nonlinearities and responses of a croconium dye(1,3-bis[(3,3-dimethylindolin-2-ylidene)methyl] croconine) in tetrahydrofuran(THF) solution and in poly(methyl methacrylate)(PMMA) coating films were measured using a femtosecond degenerate four-wave mixing(DFWM) technique with a laser pulse of 130 fs system under resonant conditions.The molecular hyperpolarizability,γ of the croconium dye in THF solution was determined to be about 5.3×10 -29 esu,and the third-order nonlinear optical susceptibilities,χ (3) of the present PMMA coating films containing the croconium dye was measured to be of the order of 10 -8 esu.Furthermore,the dynamic of DFWM optical response for croconium dye was also studied and analysed.
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    ZHONG Fu-xin, JIANG Zhi-liang, LI Ting-sheng, LI Fang, LIANG Hong
    Imaging Science and Photochemistry    2001, 19 (1): 13-18.   DOI: 10.7517/j.issn.1674-0475.2001.01.13
    Abstract742)      PDF (277KB)(1480)       Save
    The green silver colloid and yellow silver colloid were prepared by two-step photochemical procedure and UV photochemical procedure respectively. Their sizes measured by TEM are 100 nm and 40 nm respectively. The green silver solloid exhibits two absorption peaks at 393.9 nm and 713.3 nm , The absorption peak of yellow silver colloid is at 419.3 nm. They have a maxium resonance scattering peak at 470 nm, and the green silver colloid has other two resonance scattering peaks at 340 nm and 680 nm.
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    Imaging Science and Photochemistry    1998, 16 (3): 274-288.   DOI: 10.7517/j.issn.1674-0475.1998.03.274
    Abstract1002)      PDF (833KB)(5047)       Save
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    YANG Chenggen, WU Shuping, JIANG Zhiqin
    Imaging Science and Photochemistry    1998, 16 (1): 48-54.   DOI: 10.7517/j.issn.1674-0475.1998.01.48
    Abstract772)      PDF (604KB)(1380)       Save
    The photochemical reaction of chloranil(Q) with 3β-methoxycholest-5-en(1) in MeCN gave three major products: the coupling products between the benzoquinone and 3β-methoxycholest-5-en-at-7 postion (2),3β-methoxycholest-5-en-7-ol(3),and the hydrobenzoquinone(QH 2). The solvent effect on the reaction was also investigated. A photo induced electron transfer(ET) reaction mechanism was proposed to account for the reaction,the ESR,UV spectrometry etc. were employed to verify the ET path way.
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    Photopolymerization Kinetics of 2,2',5-tris(2-fluorophenyl)- 4-(3,4-dimethoxypheny)- 4',5'-diphenyl-1,1'-biimdazole Combination Photoinitiator Systems
    PENG Cheng, WANG Ke-min, LU Jian, QIAN Xiao-chun, JIANG Shan, NIE Jun, MA Gui-ping
    Imaging Science and Photochemistry    2012, 30 (4): 299-307.   DOI: 10.7517/j.issn.1674-0475.2012.04.299
    Abstract1384)      PDF (718KB)(1461)       Save
    The photopolymerization kinetics of combination photoinitiator systems which were composed by 2,2',5-tris(2-fluorophenyl)-4-(3,4-dimethoxypheny)- 4',5'-diphenyl-1,1'-biimdazole(WJ-HABI), photosensitizer N, N-bis(diethylamino) benzophenone (EMK) and hydrogen donors N-pheylglycine(NPG) were investigated by Real-time Infrared(RT-IR) spectroscopy. The different initiator concentrations, the different compositions of photoinitiator systems, light intensity and different functional monomers on the polymerization were studied. The results indicated that with the increase of initiator concentration and light intensity, the double bond conversion and the polymerization rate increased.
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    A New Approach of Vascular Reconstruction in Brain
    CHEN Peng, LIU Da
    Imaging Science and Photochemistry    2016, 34 (6): 552-563.   DOI: 10.7517/j.issn.1674-0475.2016.06.552
    Abstract434)      PDF (2027KB)(1224)       Save

    Vascular reconstruction in neurosurgery navigation software is an important component. There exist two problems of brain blood vessel visualization, eliminating skull results in impurity tissue’s existence and blood vessels’ intermittence; regeneration based on segmentation results in blood vessels’ surface "distorting facts" or "connection ladder". This paper takes the threshold level set segmentation which is not sensitive to the complex shape of target, and combines with the ROI to speed up, then uses the Marching Cube algorithm combined with a modified two-dimensional distance field to reconstruct the surface. The experimental shows that the method can greatly eliminate "connection ladder", avoid impurity tissue’s existence and blood vessels’ intermittence. Moreover, this method can extract multiple vessels at the same time without consideration of brain blood vessels’ complex topology structure, the reconstruction can provide reference for the doctor to diagnose.

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