Hydrogen polysulfides (H2Sn) and nitroxyl (HNO) play important roles in a series of physiological and pathological processes, including regulating intracellular redox signaling processes, strengthening myocardial contractility and inhibiting platelet aggregation. H2Sn can be formed by the reaction between hydrogen sulfide (H2S) and reactive oxygen species. Nitric oxide (NO) and HNO can interconvert in the present of superoxide dismutase. H2S can react with NO and form H2Sn and HNO, which will alter the enzymatic activity and protein protein interactions, and then affect protein functions. Therefore, the capability to real-time detect the concentrations of H2Sn and HNO in vivo are of great significance in biomedical research area. Among the various bioanalysis methods, the fluorescent probe technology with the advantages of good selectivity, high sensitivity, real-time in situ detection and negligible damage to sample, has received widespread attention. This review classifies and summarizes the fluorescent probes which are developed in recent years to detect H2Sn and HNO concentrations based on the reaction types between the response units and the analytes. This review mainly focus on elaborating the design concepts, detection mechanisms and biological applications of these probes. Finally, the application prospect of fluorescent probes are discussed. At the same time, this review also cover the fluorescence probes for the detection of hydrogen sulfide and other sulfane sulfur.