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Table of Content

    23 January 2024, Volume 42 Issue 1
    Content
    2024, 42(1):  0-0. 
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    Review and Articles
    A Study on Holographic Particle Imaging Based on Fourier Imaging Networks
    LI Yujie, CHENG Weizhe, YU Le, WANG Huaying, WANG Dan, LI Xueyan, LI Boshi
    2024, 42(1):  1-8.  DOI: 10.7517/issn.1674-0475.231026
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    Digital holographic reconstruction can obtain three-dimensional information of objects, and it has significant scientific significance and practical value in medical, environmental protection, chemical engineering, and other fields that require measurement of particle size and three-dimensional information. The particle holographic localization often faces issues of computational complexity and insufficient reconstruction accuracy. To address these issues, we adopted a method based on the Fourier imaging network. By leveraging the characteristics of the Fourier transform, we were able to effectively extract frequency features from the hologram. Combined with deep learning technology, the network utilized learnable filters and a global receptive field to process the spatial frequencies of input data. This approach not only enhanced data processing efficiency but also endowed the system with superior feature extraction capabilities, thereby achieving precise particle localization. In this paper, we validated our approach through both experimental and simulation studies and compared it with the Dense_U_net network. The results show that the method based on the Fourier Imaging Network significantly improved both localization accuracy and speed.
    Research on High-precision Deformation Measurement Based on Improved IC-GN Algorithm in Digital Image Correlation Methods
    SUN Zegang, ZHANG Kui, JIANG Qiang, LI Junhua
    2024, 42(1):  9-15.  DOI: 10.7517/issn.1674-0475.230804
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    In the measurement of object deformation using digital image correlation methods, the FA-NR algorithm achieves high-precision measurement, while the IC-GN algorithm improves measurement efficiency on this basis. To further improve measurement accuracy, an improved algorithm based on IC-GN (GIC-GN) was proposed. By using the gradient method to obtain a more accurate sub pixel displacement at the known initial position of the entire pixel, the error generated in the Hessian matrix calculation process is reduced, and the convergence speed of the iteration is accelerated, effectively improving measurement accuracy and efficiency. The simulation experiment verification results show that the error of GIC-GN algorithm can be stable between 10-4-10-3 pixel, and the accuracy of IC-GN algorithm is improved by 10%-60% compared to FA-NR algorithm. The time consumption is 0.1 times that of FA-NR algorithm and 0.8 times that of IC-GN algorithm, which can achieve high-precision and efficient measurement of object deformation information.
    Feasibility of A Novel Non-contrast Enhanced MR Angiography for Hepatic Portal Vein Imaging
    ZHONG Zhiming, PAN Hui, BAN Tongxing, LIU Ranshen, CHEN Peng, JIANG Jieying
    2024, 42(1):  16-22.  DOI: 10.7517/issn.1674-0475.231013
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    This study explored the feasibility of using relaxation-enhanced MR angiography without contrast and triggering (REACT) for imaging the hepatic portal vein, and to explore. Prospective study of 22 healthy volunteers who underwent upper abdominal imaging with balance turbo field echo (BTFE) and REACT sequences. The overall image quality score, the ratio of minimum to maximum signal intensity (RSI), signal to noise ratio (SNR) and contrast to noise ratio (CNR) of the main hepatic portal vein, right portal vein and left portal vein were compared between the BTFE group and the REACT group. Paired t-test or paired rank sum test was used to analyze the differences in RSI, SNR, and CNR between the two groups, and Kappa test was used 16to evaluate the consistency of image quality scores. The results showed the average score of overall image quality of hepatic portal vein in REACT group (3.86) was slightly higher than that in BTFE group (3.2), and the difference between the two groups was statistically significant (Z=-4.6, P<0.05). The RSI of hepatic portal vein in BTFE group (0.81) was slightly higher than that in REACT group (0.76). The SNR and CNR of hepatic portal vein trunk, left and right branches in REACT group were significantly higher than those in BTFE group, and the differences between the two groups were statistically significant (Z value -4.57--3.82, P<0.05). Therefore, the image quality of REACT sequence is a little better than that of BTFE sequence in non-contrast enhanced portal vein angiography. In addition, the use of water-fat separation technology (Dixon) to suppress fat in the REACT sequence can obtain a cleaner background signal, and the imaging display of hepatic portal vein is clearer.
    Effects of Different Scanning Position and Scout Orientation on CT Images and Radiation Dose of Unilateral Hip
    JIANG Dongdong, WANG Ya’nan, ZHOU Lei, SUN Ao, LV Guoyi
    2024, 42(1):  23-28.  DOI: 10.7517/issn.1674-0475.231006
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    To investigate the effect of different scanning positions and scout orientation on image quality and radiation dose in CT scanning of unilateral hip with automatic tube current modulation (ATCM). 120 patients who underwent CT examination of single hip were randomly divided into 4 groups. In group A, the body midline was used as the sagittal vertical orientation line, a scout image was anteroposterior + left side, and the scanning field of view was large body type. In the other three groups, the hip was 23taken as the center of the isocenter scanning, and the scanning field of view was small body type. In group B, the orientation of the scout image was anteroposterior + lateral image of the X-ray tube close to the long axis of the body. The orientation of group C was anteroposterior + lateral image of the X-ray tube away from the long axis of the body. Only anteroposterior direction is used for group D scout image. The volume CT dose index (CTDIvol), dose length product (DLP), objective noise, signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and contrast signal-to-noise ratio (CNR) were measured and calculated. Three subjective measures (Subjective noise, streak artifacts and diagnostic confidence) were evaluated. The objective noise, SNR, CNR, CTDIvol and DLP were significantly different among the four groups (P<0.01). There was no significant difference between group C and group D (P>0.05), The overall radiation dose of group C and D was reduced by 16%-35% compared with other groups. There was no significant difference in all subjective indexes among the four groups (P>0.05). In the case of unilateral hip CT scan in the ATCM system based on the information of the last scout view, it is recommended to select the small body scanning field of view in the isocenter scanning scheme, and select the anteroposterior scout image or the lateral scout image of the X-ray tube away from the long axis of the body as the last execution plan, which can ensure the image quality and further optimize the radiation dose.
    Study on the Influence of Thyroid Nodule Size on the Quality of Ultrasound-guided Fine Needle Biopsy Specimens
    LI Long, ZHANG Suya, LV Bin, WANG Beibei, LENG Zhiyuan
    2024, 42(1):  29-33.  DOI: 10.7517/issn.1674-0475.230803
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    To evaluate the influence of thyroid nodule size on the quality of ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration biopsy (US-FNAB) specimens. The data of 614 patients with US-FNAB independently completed by the same ultrasound doctor were retrospectively analyzed. According to the diameter of thyroid nodules, they were divided into group A (<5 mm), group B (5-10 mm) and group C (>10 mm), and the unsatisfaction rates among the groups were compared. There were 189 nodules in Group A, and the rate of unsatisfaction was 11.6% (22/189). In group B, there were 397 nodules, and the unsatisfaction rate was 10.8% (43/397). In group C, there were 147 nodules, and the unsatisfaction rate was 9.5% (14/147). There was no significant difference in the rate of unsatisfaction among the three groups (P>0.05). For a doctor with rich operating experience, the size of thyroid nodules does not affect the quality of US-FNAB specimens.
    The Relationship between Serum Gal-3, IL-17 Levels and Pulmonary Ultrasound Scores of Neonatal Infectious Pneumonia and the Predictive Value of Secondary Respiratory Distress Syndrome
    XU Annan, LIAO Chonghao, LI Shiyao, XIAO Zongli
    2024, 42(1):  34-40.  DOI: 10.7517/issn.1674-0475.230702
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    In order to investigate the relationship between serum galectin-3 (Gal-3) and interleukin-17 (IL-17) levels of neonatal infectious pneumonia (NIP) and pulmonary ultrasound scores, as well as the predictive value of secondary respiratory distress syndrome (RDS), 98 children with NIP were selected as the study group, and RDS children were divided according to whether they had secondary RDS. In children without RDS, 98 healthy newborns were selected as the control group. Serum Gal-3 and IL-17 levels were detected in all patients, and lung ultrasound was performed in the study group. The results showed that the levels of serum Gal-3 and IL-17 in the study group were higher than those in the control group, and the levels of serum Gal-3 and IL-17 were negatively correlated with pulmonary ultrasound scores. Gal-3 and IL-17 were independent risk factors for secondary RDS in NIP, and gestational age was independent protective factor for secondary RDS in NIP. The AUC value of the combined prediction of serum Gal-3 and IL-17 for secondary RDS in NIP was greater than that predicted by a single index, and the patients benefited well. In conclusion, serum Gal-3 and IL-17 levels are closely related to pulmonary ultrasound scores in children with NIP. Clinical detection of serum Gal-3 and IL-17 levels can assess the risk of secondary RDS in children with NIP.
    Clinical Application Research on Wireless and Remote Continuous Monitoring Technology for Maternal Hemodynamics
    QI Hong, WEI Lijun, LAI Xuelei
    2024, 42(1):  41-46.  DOI: 10.7517/issn.1674-0475.230716
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    Explore an innovative, non-invasive, reflective photoplethysmography based device for continuous monitoring of maternal hemodynamics during and after delivery. 81 full-term low-risk postpartum women were selected to participate in this study. Wear a new reflective PPG device for postpartum women, which automatically collects cardiac output (CO), blood pressure (BP), stroke volume (SV), systemic vascular resistance (SVR), heart rate (HR) every 5 seconds, and uploads all data to smartphone based applications and data clouds. Use the Power BI analysis tool (Microsoft) to analyze the collected data. The mean measurements 41before and after rupture of membranes, epidural anesthesia, fetal delivery and placental excretion were compared. The results show that the epidural anesthesia was associated with a slight increase in CO (P<0.05), because there was no significant increase in HR and SV. When SVR decreased inversely, the blood pressure remained stable (P<0.05). Fetal delivery was associated with the peak value of CO, after which CO decreased rapidly (P<0.05). The average blood pressure remained stable throughout the delivery process, and the fetus increased slightly during delivery (P<0.05), reflecting an increase in CO and a decrease in SVR (P<0.05). Placental excretion was associated with the second peak of CO and the reduction of SVR. Therefore, a new type of reflective PPG device can be used to monitor the hemodynamics of postpartum women during and during delivery. And use these data to determine normal and abnormal values, in order to develop safety plans during and during childbirth.
    Impact of Glycemic Control on Left and Right Ventricular Myocardial Function in Type 2 Diabetic Patients
    LIANG Limei, HE Xin, ZHAO Shiguang, ZHANG Huixin, LIU Hongli
    2024, 42(1):  47-52.  DOI: 10.7517/issn.1674-0475.230807
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    This study investigated on left and right ventricular myocardial strain in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), and the relationship between left and right ventricular dysfunction. A total of 100 patients with T2DM and normal left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) were divided into HbA1c<7% group (n=54) and HbA1c≥7% group (n=46) according to HbA1c level. Forty healthy adult volunteers were selected as the control group. The data of conventional echocardiography and left ventricular global longitudinal strain (LVGLS), right ventricular global longitudinal strain (RVGLS) and right ventricular free wall longitudinal strain (RVFWLS) data were measured. The differences were compared among the groups. Multivariable linear regression analysis was performed for the associated between HbA1c and biventricular myocardial strain, and the correlation 47between left and right ventricular myocardial strain. LVGLS and RVGLS decreased gradually from the control group, HbA1c<7% group to HbA1c≥7% group (all P<0.05). Compared with the control group, RVFWLS was decreased in HbA1c<7% group and HbA1c≥7% group (all P<0.05). However, there was no significant difference between the latter two (P>0.05). Multiple linear regression analysis showed that HbA1c was the independent determinants for LVGLS, RVGLS and RVFWLS in T2DM patients, and LVGLS was independently associated with RVGLS and RVFWLS. The left and right ventricular myocardial strain decreased, and there is association between them in T2DM patients with normal left ventricular ejection fraction. HbA1c is an independent determinant for left and right ventricular myocardial dysfunction, suggesting that hyperglycemia was independently associated with impaired of the biventricular myocardial at the same time, and suggests adverse interventricular interactions.
    Comprehensive Evaluation of the Effectiveness and Cost of Different Imaging Protocols in Breast Cancer Screening
    MA Cai, WANG Yongsheng, CHEN Wenjing
    2024, 42(1):  53-57.  DOI: 10.7517/issn.1674-0475.231007
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    The single or combined diagnostic efficacy of ultrasound, mammography and magnetic resonance imaging in dense breast was evaluated in combination with medical economics. Data from 130 patients with 134 lesions of dense breast who underwent surgery or needle biopsy were retrospectively analyzed, and all patients completed ultrasound, mammography and magnetic resonance examination within 2 weeks before surgery. The results showed that mammography in a single examination protocol was of limited value in the diagnosis of dense breast lesions. Magnetic resonance imaging had high sensitivity and specificity, but the cost-effectiveness ratio was high (4.84), making it unsuitable for general screening. Ultrasound had high sensitivity and the lowest cost-effectiveness ratio (0.99), which could be used as the preferred examination, but had insufficient specificity, so supplementary examination was needed to improve the diagnostic effect. The combination of ultrasound and magnetic resonance had the highest accuracy and the lowest incremental cost-effectiveness ratio, making it the optimal solution from a medical economics perspective. Dense breast ultrasound has found suspicious lesions, and then combined with magnetic resonance examination, can significantly improve the diagnostic efficiency.
    The Correlation Analysis of Quantitative CT and Lung Function in Pulmonary Fibrosis Complicated with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
    CUI Lu, CHENG Liuhui, ZHU Yongyue, SUN Yinghan, WANG Mohan, WANG Daoqing
    2024, 42(1):  58-64.  DOI: 10.7517/issn.1674-0475.231019
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    The study explored the correlation between quantitative CT and lung function in combined pulmonary fibrosis and emphysema (CPFE), and provided a basis for the diagnosis, evaluation, and treatment of CPFE. The study retrospectively 58analyzed 88 CPFE patients who underwent chest high-resolution CT (HRCT) and pulmonary function (PFT) examinations and 96 emphysema patients admitted during the same period. Use 3D Slicer software on CT images based on the threshold segmentation method to obtain quantitative CT indicators, including total lung volume (TLV), normal lung area percentage (NL%), low-density attenuation value (LAA%-950) and high-density attenuation value (HAA%-700). Pearson correlation was used to analyze the correlation between quantitative CT indicators and lung function, and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was used to analyze the diagnostic performance of lung function indicators and quantitative CT indicators in the CPFE group and emphysema group. The calculation results showed that the CPFE group was more likely to occur in smoking men than the emphysema group, and the differences between the two groups in the proportion of men, smoking proportion and smoking pack-years were statistically significant (P<0.05). Except for the vital capacity as a percentage of predicted value (VC%pred) and forced vital capacity as a percentage of predicted value (FVC%pred), there were no statistically significant differences between the CPFE group and the emphysema group. The differences in other lung function indicators were statistically significant (P values are all <0.05). There were statistically significant differences in high-density attenuation value (HAA%), low-density attenuation value (LAA%), and total lung volume (TLV) between the two groups (P values are all <0.05). TLV, HAA%, LAA% all have the highest correlation with the ratio of forced expiratory volume in first second to forced vital capacity (FEV1/FVC) [r values are -0.67, 0.36, 0.43 respectively, P values are all <0.05)], The normal lung area percentage (NL%) has the highest correlation with the carbon monoxide dispersion volume as a percentage of the predicted value (DLCO%pred) (r=0.53, P<0.05). ROC curve analysis results show that FEV1/FVC and HAA% are independent predictive factors for distinguishing CPFE from emphysema, with the areas under the curve (AUC) being 0.87 (95%CI: 0.82-0.92) and 0.83 (95%CI: 0.77-0.89) respectively. It can be known from this that quantitative CT indicators can be used for the diagnosis of CPFE and can assess the damage of lung function to a certain extent.
    Advances of Ultrasound in the Evaluation of Arterial Elasticity
    XU Qiuxiao, LIU Lijuan
    2024, 42(1):  65-70.  DOI: 10.7517/issn.1674-0475.230909
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    Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death and burden of diseases in China. Atherosclerosis is a common pathological basis for a variety of ischemic or hemorrhagic cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases. The decreased elasticity and increased stiffness of the arteries, the major manifestations of early atherosclerosis, are the independent risk factors for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. The early detection of atherosclerosis and early intervention are beneficial to delay or avoid cardiovascular events. Ultrasound imaging can quantitatively evaluate arterial elasticity to reflect changes in vascular function, which is the main method for detecting early atherosclerosis in clinic. This article reviews the research progress of arterial elasticity assessed by different ultrasound techniques.
    Application of Radiomics in TACE Treatment of Hepatocellular Carcinoma
    SHUAI Shi, TANG Yanlong
    2024, 42(1):  71-76.  DOI: 10.7517/issn.1674-0475.230905
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    In recent years, the application of radiomics in personalized diagnosis, treatment plan selection, efficacy and prognosis evaluation of various benign and malignant tumors has developed rapidly, becoming a new direction and research hotspot in the field of imaging medicine. Imaging omics is the process of transforming image features into data features, exploring the relationship between images and tissue pathology and physiology through a large amount of data features, in order to achieve the goals of disease diagnosis, prognosis evaluation, and so on. This article mainly elaborates on the application of radiomics in the treatment of transcatheter hepatic artery chemoembolization in hepatocellular carcinoma patients, including the prediction of postoperative efficacy of radiomics in TACE, screening of patients who are not suitable for TACE treatment, limitations of current radiomics application in TACE treatment of HCC patients, and future prospects and research directions.
    Advances in Ultrasound Shear Wave Elastography for Diagnosing Musculoskeletal Diseases
    XU Yile, CHE Yanling, LIU Yang, LI Jiashuo
    2024, 42(1):  77-82.  DOI: 10.7517/issn.1674-0475.231024
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    Ultrasound shear wave elastography is a new method in elastography that offers the advantages of real-time, non-invasive, and quantitative measurement of tissue elasticity. This technique can be used to evaluate the biomechanical properties of muscles, which are correlated with their biological characteristics. Additionally, it provides a novel tool for diagnosing musculoskeletal disorders. Other components of the musculoskeletal system, such as tendons, ligaments, and nerves, may also be subjected to physiological assessment and diagnosis of associated ailments. This paper presents a short synopsis of their examination in muscles, tendons, ligaments, and nerves.